By Stanley D Brunn
@text: during this publication, a global staff of political geographers and political scientists study the effect of eleven September 2001 on overseas regulations and diplomacy. The authors draw from numerous varied views to debate Amer
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Extra info for 11 September and its Aftermath: The Geopolitics of Terror
As ‘outsiders’ in relation to most modern communities, the fanatics who constitute Al Qaeda represent a new class of security threat, one that poses a transnational and collective dilemma for states. Where the central problem in international relations was often defined as interstate war, the ‘war on terrorism’ is something new and different. Not classic interstate war, as we observed earlier, it is difficult from a state perspective not to approach the problem of terrorism as one of crime rather than war at all.
3 This militarism in turn relates to our third theme of a relative shift in ideology from global neo-liberalism towards neo-conservatism. These related shifts suit the United States inasmuch as it is currently unrivalled and unchallengeable in a uni-polar world as far as military capability is concerned, whereas in terms of civil power the world is decidedly multi-polar, with the European Union for instance now on a similar economic footing to the United States. Moreover, civil power also involves less tangible aspects involving transnational institutions, their ideological or normative foundations and limited democracy, as Tony McGrew shows for the WTO,4 and here the moral authority of the United States is even more open to challenge.
Thus, when the Saudis encourage Islamist views and provide financial Copyright © 2004 Frank Cass & Co. Ltd assistance to Islamist groups, they are, in the long run, undermining their own survival. Democracy is further eroded by the fact that new communications technologies make it easier to maintain closed communities. ’ Thus, many observant Muslims regard themselves as ‘outsiders’ whether they live in Muslim or non-Muslim countries, because they regard themselves as members of a community of Islam defined by living in accordance with a strict interpretation of the Quran.