By Hadis Morkoc
Actual sciences and engineering, in addition to organic sciences have lately made nice strides of their respective fields. extra importantly, the cross-fertilization of principles, paradigms and methodologies have ended in the remarkable technological advancements in components equivalent to details processing, complete color semiconductor monitors, compact biosensors and regulated drug discovery to call a couple of. best specialists of their respective fields have come jointly to debate the newest advancements and the way forward for micro-nano electronics. They examine matters to be confronted in final limits comparable to unmarried electron transitors; 0 dimensional structures for detailed homes; thresholdless lasers, electronics in line with reasonably cheap and versatile plastic chips; cellphone manipulation; biosensors; DNA dependent desktops; quantum computing; DNA sequencing chips; micro fluidics; nanomotors in accordance with molecules; molecular electronics and lately rising extensive bandgap semiconductors for emitters, detectors and tool amplifiers. Contributions from best specialists during this box Covers a variety of issues
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Additional info for Advanced Semiconductor and Organic Nano-Techniques
2001). It is really not very important that this device structure is the one that winds up being used. What is important is that the topic is recognized as being a clincher and that many good minds are at it. This is how progress is made and this is how we got where we are in terms of microelectronics and any branch of science and technology. It will be years before we know which of the device designs that are out there will end up being used. Already device structures that are very amenable to production have been developed by researchers at Intel Laboratories.
17. CIE diagram superimposed with visible LEDs having three primary colors and soft white Hght obtained by pumping a YAG medium with a blue InGaN LED. containing red and green (or simply yellow) dyes is pumped with an InGaNbased blue LED as shown in Fig. 18. Combination of blue from the InGaN LED and yellow from the organic medium leads to soft white light. To create a multicolored output with as high efficiency as possible, a two-dye color conversion process may be better. In each case, a host is used to capture the emitted light.
It is possible to tune the emission spectrum of the YAG phosphor by substituting some or all the yttrium sites with other rare earths (REs) such as gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), etc. The RE^ ^: YAG emission and absorption spectrum can be further fine tuned by substituting some or all of the aluminum sites by gallium (Jones 2000). The schematic representation of white light production from the combination of blue and yellow sources is depicted very clearly in the CIE diagram of Fig. 17. Currently, the efficacy of the phosphor-white LEDs can be as high as 151mW~' with half-life times of 40 000 h.